Lessons from Rwanda, twenty years on

By Tolu Ogunlesi 

Surviving life after a war often turns out to be as arduous as surviving the war itself. Like colonial rule, the psychological wounds of armed conflict outlast the economic ones. The declaration of surrender by Biafran rebel forces in 1970 may have ended a 30-month civil war that claimed in excess of one million lives, but it did not suddenly bequeath to Nigeria’s seventy million citizens a post-ethnic configuration.

And the perpetrators and victims of Rwanda’s genocide (in the 100 days between April 7, 1994 and July 16, 1994, an estimated 800,000 people were murdered) were often not unknown to one another.

The question of what needs to be done in the aftermath of violence is a difficult yet inescapable one. Handled ineffectually, it becomes a bomb that ticks with ominous obstinacy. As one Angolan human rights activist told German broadcaster Deutsche Welle in 2012, ten years after the Civil War ended (after almost thirty years of on-and-off fighting): “Our political intolerance remains. We have not forgotten the hatred that is stored in our hearts. There was no process of peace-making and no planning for the transition.”

Ditto Cote d’Ivoire. In a July 2013 interview, researcher Nora Sturm spoke of the “deep distrust” and “feelings of resentment and alienation” lingering beyond the Civil War. And in There Was A Country, his memoir of the Nigerian Civil War (1967 – 1970), published in 2012, forty two years after the war ended, the late Nigerian novelist and essayist Chinua Achebe lamented:

“Why has the war not been discussed, or taught to the young, over forty years after its end. Are we perpetually doomed to repeat the mistakes of the past because we are too stubborn to learn from them?”

Retribution, Reconciliation and Religion

In Nigeria at first we turned to God. In his speech on January 15, 1970, Nigeria’s Head of State General Yakubu Gowon declared: “We must thank God for his mercies. We mourn the dead heroes. We thank God for sparing us to see his glorious dawn of national reconciliation. We have ordered that Friday, Saturday, and Sunday be national days of prayer. We must his guidance to do our duty to contribute our quota to the building of a great nation, founded on the concerted efforts of all its people and on justice and equality.”

In fairness to it the government went on to create a ‘National Youth Service Corps’ scheme to “promote national unity and integration.” The scheme made it mandatory for all Nigerian University graduates to spend 12 months on national assignment outside their “state of origin.” More than 30 years after the war ended my service took me hundreds of miles from home, to the Niger delta. It was my first time of living outside the southwest region where my ethnic roots lie. Thirty years before me my father had made a similar journey out of the South West; his took him much farther, to the northeastern town of Mubi, near the border with Cameroon.

But beyond the NYSC there was no real effort to face and deal with the feelings that had led to the war, and the devastation that ensued from it. This was a war that claimed an estimated one million lives, most of them ethnic Igbos from the South East, and in which the warring parties were both guilty of acts that probably should have been decisively brought to justice once the war ended.

This might explain why, more than forty years after the war, the wounds remain. It took the publication of There Was A Country, Achebe’s final book, a broadside against Nigeria and its mistreatment of the breakaway republic, Biafra, to reveal just how fresh the wounds were. The appearance of the book triggered bellicose debate amongst Nigerians on the Internet and in newspapers.

South Africa set up, in 1995, a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (similar institutions existed in Chile and Argentina in the 1980s, to dig up the past and try to apportion blame and guilt). The country’s interim constitution, produced shortly after the first multiracial elections in 1994, had highlighted “a need for understanding but not for vengeance, a need for reparation but not retaliation, a need for Ubuntu but not victimization.” The South Afrian example inspired other African countries like Liberia, Sierra Leone, Burundi, and even Nigeria (the final report from Nigeria’s Commission was never formally made public).

The biggest argument against Truth Commissions is that they are long on confessions and forgiveness but short on justice. “If truth has replaced justice in South Africa – has reconciliation then turned into an embrace of evil?” Ugandan scholar Mahmood Mamdani, one of its loudest critics, famously asked.

It would seem that in dealing with the legacy of Africa’s many conflicts people would prefer mechanisms that focus less on amnesty than on retribution, like the Nuremberg Trials, the military tribunals set up by the victorious Allied powers (US, Britain, France and Soviet Union) to try Nazi war criminals after the Second World War ended. The Nuremberg consisted in all of twelve trials conducted between 1945 and 1949.

The first and best known one saw twenty-two of Nazi Germany’s most powerful officials facing an ‘International Military Tribunal’ (IMT) between November 1945 and August 1946. On October 1, 1946, judgement was delivered. 12 of the defendants were sentenced to death, 3 got life sentences, 4 got jail terms while 3 were acquitted. A number of adhoc postwar criminal tribunals have since followed in the steps of Nuremberg, and that approach was formalised into a permanent court, the International Criminal Court (ICC), in 2002.

The Rwandan Example

But such formal internationally-instituted trials can prove expensive and time-consuming, and limited in their capacity. In the face of nationalistic fervor, the ICC often faces acccusations that it is an imperialist tool that disporportionately targets Africans. When the court stepped in to try six alleged perpetrators of Kenya’s post-election violence, which killed more than a thousand people in 2007-8, Kenya’s parliament voted to withdraw from the Court. (Two of the accused had been elected President and Vice President of Kenya in the intervening time). The Kenyan government and the African Union raised questions regarding why only African leaders have ever been slated for trial by the Court. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda set up in November 1994 has, in the twenty years since it was established, completed only about 80 cases (most resulted in convictions, and there are a handful appeals pending). The court is expected to wind up at the end of 2014.

To widen the nets of justice, and relieve the pressure on the conventional courts system (plagued by a scarcity of judges – the genocide almost wiped out judiciary) Rwanda settled for a home-grown approach, the community-based pre-colonial system of arbitration known as ‘Gacaca’ (“grass” in Kinyarwanda). Gacaca was first tried in 2002, and then formalized by Parliament in 2006. The courts are usually open-air affairs presided over by judges chosen from among the people. The courts wound up in 2012, after trying 2 million people, convicting an estimated 65 percent of them. (Rwanda’s population is currently 12 million). Crimes are punished with jail terms and/or community service; Rwanda has abolished the death penalty, as it has all personal and official markers of ethnic identity.

Gacaca attracted lots of controversy, especially from the international community. Critics described it as prone to abuse (there are no defence lawyers, and no cross-examination; and trials are relatively speedy). But the country’s authorities consider it a success. At the official closing ceremony for the Gacaca courts in 2012, Rwandan President Paul Kagame said: “We had three choices: first was the more dangerous path of revenge, or secondly, grant general amnesty, both of which would have led to further anarchy and destruction. But we chose the third and more difficult course of dealing with the matter decisively and restoring the unity and integrity of the nation.”

Alongside Gacaca there are a number of practices (all based on existing local traditions) around which contemporary Rwandan society is constructed: Ubudehe (participatory governance and decision-making), Umuganda (community service), Umusanzu (communal philanthropy) and Imihigo (performance contracts at local government level). All blend longstanding traditional practices with modern forms of governance.

And, unlike in Nigeria, Rwanda has incorporated the tragedy into its educational curriculum; even at primary school level students are encouraged to discuss the genocide.

The debate about balancing truth, justice and reconciliation is not one that will end anytime soon. Even now Nigeria is caught up in a fresh one, regarding the extent to which an amnesty would be justifiable in dealing with the all-too-real threat of Boko Haram.

What we have is the solid example of Rwanda – indeed the word genocide has come to be associated with Boko Haram in light of a recent surge in brutality – a country that boldly refused to shy away from dealing with the starkness of its past.

“Fifteen years removed from a mass genocide that resulted in the deaths of nearly one million people, Rwanda today presents a model for hope, justice, innovation and human development,“ write Margee Ensign and William Bertrand in their 2010 book, Rwanda: History and Hope. “[…] No society has ever attempted what this poor country is now facing – reconstructing individual lives and rebuilding an economy and political structures while including many of those who participated in the genocide.”

The ebb and flow of U.S.-Nigeria relations

By Tolu Ogunlesi

American popular culture has consistently captured the imagination of Nigerians for a while now. One of Lagos’ most notorious robbers in the 1990s styled himself ‘Shina Rambo’; and one well-known Nollywood trope is the recasting of Hollywood blockbusters.

That Nigerian fascination with America reached its apogee in the age of Barack Obama, son of an African father. On election night in 2012, the US Mission in Nigeria assembled guests at Eko Hotel for an evening to commemorate the presidential elections that would be taking place across America later that day. Speaker after speaker what America meant to them. In the mock voting that followed Barack Obama floored Mitt Romney with 219 votes to 30.

Americans on their own part might trace a collective interest in Nigeria to the Nigerian Civil War, when President Lyndon Johnson, overwhelmed by his citizens protesting the widespread starvation in the war zones, reportedly ordered aides to “just get those nigger babies off my TV set.”

In the decades since the image of Nigeria has evolved considerably: Biafra’s helpless children have been replaced by an immigrant community of high-achieving professionals and students on the one hand, and on the other an obsession with the ‘Nigerian Letter’ – to wit US Senator Ted Cruz’ October 2013 quip about the Obamacare website being run by “Nigerian email scammers.”

Changing equation

America opened its first Consulate in Nigeria in 1928, but did not begin to show active interest until Nigeria gained independence from Britain in 1960. Trade volumes between Nigeria and America tripled between 1960 and 1970.

But even then, writes Ayo Olukotun in a 1992 paper for the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, “the general tendency of officialdom in the United States was to continue to treat Nigeria as mainly a British responsibility for which the United States had only token interests, and this was linked to its global mission in these years of keeping communism at bay.”

Until the 1970s, when Nigeria first emerged as an oil power. Tensions in the Middle East in October 1973 raised the price of oil, almost quadrupling Nigeria’s monthly oil revenues by May 1974, when prices peaked.

Since then Nigeria, one of the world’s ten biggest producers of crude oil, has been of strategic economic importance to the US, the world’s leading importer.
That dynamic has altered dramatically in recent years; US oil imports from Nigeria have dropped 70 percent in the last decade.

“Given the continuous rise in the price of crude oil to the point where it’s now profitable for it to develop shale oil, and the tweaking of policy to focus on being a strategic reservoir for oil and gas as a way of dealing with future possible global conflicts, right now there’s a change in the equation,” says Sam Ohuabunwa, President of the Nigerian-American Chamber of Commerce, founded in the 1960s, and based in Lagos.

Problems Inc.

In recent years relations between the two countries have ebbed dramatically on occasion, largely on account of two issues – security and corruption.

“The challenge we have is that there is a feeling in the United States that the Nigerian government is not doing its best in dealing with security issues,” says Ohuabunwa.

Similar sentiments exist regarding corruption. The 2013 presidential pardon granted Diepreye Alamieyeseigha, a former Governor of the oil-producing Bayelsa state convicted of money laundering, elicited a disapproving tweet from the US Embassy in Abuja. As Secretary of State Hillary Clinton repeatedly railed against “massive, widespread and pervasive corruption” within the Nigerian government.

But she was also the driving force behind the launch, on April 6, 2010, of the US–Nigeria Binational Commission, created to focus on partnerships across issues like transparency, good governance, security, agriculture, and the Niger delta. The Commission came at a difficult time for Nigeria; caught up in a constitutional crisis triggered by the extended absence of President Yar’Adua from office on account of ill-health.

When the then Secretary of State Clinton and Nigeria’s Secretary to the Federal Government Yayale Ahmed signed the commission agreement the President had not been sighted in public for five months.

It was during that time that Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab – the ‘Underwear bomber’ as he would come to be know – tried to blow up a US airliner travelling from Amsterdam to Detroit, earning Nigeria a place in America’s list of “countries of interest” in the global war on terror.

Aid and trade

Away from geopolitics and hard diplomacy things have been far less tumultuous. The United States runs an active range of aid, educational and cultural diplomacy programmes in Nigeria. One of the latest is a training project in filmmaking targeted at young people in Nigeria’s oil-rich delta region; the site, between 2006 and 2009 of a militant insurgency that almost crippled the country’s oil industry.

The project, funded by the US government through its Bureau of Conflict and Stabilization Operations, is in anticipation of the winding down next year of an amnesty programme that has seen the government issuing generous monthly payouts to surrendering militants.

Gbenga Sesan, an activist and social entrepreneur who sits on the board overseeing the project says the aim is to keep “at-risk” youth busy and prevent them from returning to militancy.

Since America emerged as Nigeria’s biggest sovereign provider of aid in the early 1960s, there have been several philanthropic interventions of this nature. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is very visible in the country, most recently in the power sector.

But amid a growing emphasis across the continent on the “trade, not aid” mantra, a focus on previously unexplored commercial frontiers is to be expected. Mr. Ohuabunwa for example sees Nigeria’s loss of the American oil market as “an opportunity for Nigeria to revamp the [access] offered by the US through the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), to take advantage of that that preferential opportunity to export agriculture-related products: leather, garments, textile products.”

[Archives] – Nigeria’s Click Chicks (2007)

by Tolu Ogunlesi

(Click on images to view in full size)

Glide_Click Chicks_Page 1 by Tolu Ogunlesi

Glide_Click Chicks_Page 2 by Tolu Ogunlesi

Some of them are not designers in any sense of the word, but all have a deep passion for following and cataloguing fashion designs, events and trends. A few years ago, before the blogging revolution big-banged, these people would have remained silent, for want of medium to express their – often highly opinionated, and unapologetic – views and opinions about fashion styles, shows and designers.

That was the time when the fashion editors of newspapers held a monopoly on the flow and slant of fashion gospel; when you had to wait for the Vanguard or Guardian’s fashion pages to publish pictures of a fashion show you didn’t attend. Today, the turnaround time for runway photos to appear in the public domain is minutes, seconds even, with the advent of high resolution camera-phones with high-speed GPRS connections.

Some of the most popular Nigerian “fashion-bloggers” (in truth, as one of them, Linda Ikeji, points out – “there are no exclusive fashion blogs; most blogs deal on different issues.”) are names like Bella Naija (anonymous), Linda Ikeji, Ronke Adeyemi (Ondo Lady), Toni Payne, Michele Obi, Uduak Oduok (Ladybrille) and Naija Gal (anonymous). A female clan, it seems.

These bloggers, scattered across the world, often working at full-time jobs, are taking Nigerian fashion to a new pedestal, using the amazing powers of technology. And in return their lives and experiences are being shaped by the presence of their “voices” on the internet. They are gradually building up reputations as not-to-be-ignored connoisseurs; and play a key role in drawing attention to exciting new African/Nigerian design talent and trends.

Ronke Adeyemi (blogging as “Ondo Lady”) is based in Kent, England. She has been blogging for well over a year, and uses her blog as “a reflection of my writing style; [as well as to] make contacts with other fashionistas and journalists.” She is not a designer, “just a lover of fashion who is fascinated by the psychology of fashion.”

I ask if blogging about her fashion interests has changed her life in any way – fame, money, authority, writing commissions, controversy? “Well it has given [me] access to events such as London Fashion Week and the chance to interview personalities in the fashion industry such as Jajay Sherman and Rachel Jacoby from The Fashionista Diaries.”
Ronke lists her top Nigerian fashion blogger as Michele Obi, who owns myfashionlife.com. Her Top Nigerian fashion designers are “Wale Adeyemi [and] Emmy Collins.”

Linda Ikeji, blogging as herself, lives and works in Lagos. A twenty-something ex-model, and now a modeling agent (CEO, Black Dove Agency) cum magazine publisher, her top Nigerian bloggers (fashion content) are “Bella Naija, Naija Gal and [the popular TV show hostess] Funmi Iyanda.”

Linda has been blogging “seriously” since March 2007. “My blog isn’t a fashion blog, I deal on different issues, not just fashion” she clarifies. “What I aim to achieve with my blog is entertain, inform, educate and change people’s perspectives on a lot of issues…”

Like Ronke Adeyemi, Linda is simply a lover of fashion; she doesn’t design or make clothes. And she says that blogging has given her

“a few controversies, a little fame because more people know me now, but no money or writing commissions.”

She lists her top 5 shows as the Nigeria Fashion Show, the New York Fashion Week, the St. Moritz Style Selection, the Thisday fashion show, and the South Africa Fashion Week, and her favorite Nigerian fashion magazines as True Love, Genevieve, Sleek, Ovation and City People Fashion and Style.

Toni Payne, CEO of Toni Payne Cosmetics and Apparel, is a Nigerian-American living in Los Angeles. Unlike all the other profiled bloggers she is more than just a “lover” of fashion, she is a “maker” as well, and both her blog and her designing feed off each other. “My blog is more of a free-spirit blog where I keep people up to date on my clothing line,” she explains.

Has blogging changed her life in any significant way – fame, money, controversy? “No, it has given me a channel to relax and talk about what I love to do.” She lists her top 5 Nigerian fashion bloggers as herself, Ladybrille, Linda Ikeji, Bella Naija and Naija Gal; and her top 5 Nigerian designers as herself, Deola Sagoe, Yemi Kosibah, Duro Olowu and Chris Aire.

Ayoola Somolu, a Lagos-based blogger (whose blog is now sadly defunct) says of herself: “I’m an avid fashion observer but I am not a fashion blogger – I [have only written] one blog post on the subject actually.” Bella Naija’s blog is her favourite Nigerian fashion blog, and it is the only Nigerian fashion blog that she can think of. “I like visiting http://www.style.com and the New York Times website style page…” she tells me, and then quickly cautions that “neither is Africa-centric…”

Her favourite designers are home-based – and female. 

“Deola Sagoe’s work seems pretty interesting and original as does Mya – by Maria Odunsi. Tiffany Amber too, I suppose; at least her work is mostly very well made. Dunni Igbinedion has produced some really nice things as well…”

Perhaps it is because of the colonization of cyberfashion by non-Afrocentric fashion blogs that Africans at home and in the Diaspora are eagerly staking out plots of webspace to give vent to their voices and sensibilities. In a feverishly globalising age – where the multitude of voices clamouring for attention in every facet of artistic endeavour and in every conceivable language have access to tools that level the playing field – no culture has an excuse anymore to remain unheard in the global marketplace.

(written October 2007, published December 2008 in Glide, the inflight magazine of the now defunct Virgin Nigeria airline)

Tolu Ogunlesi (c) 2014 

Who wants Muhammadu Buhari dead?

Originally posted on Tolu Ogunlesi:

Who is Muhammadu Buhari?

He ruled Nigeria as a military Head of State between January 1984 and August 1985.

He’s one of the most popular politicians in Nigeria at the moment, with a cult following across Northern Nigeria, especially in the twelve states generally referred to as the “core” North. 

He contested for the Presidency in 2003, 2007 and 2011, emerging runner-up on all three occasions. In the 2011 elections he amassed 12 million votes (mostly from the North) even in the face of what was generally adjudged a chaotic and poorly run campaign; further evidence of his political clout. He is therefore seen as the person most likely to pose the biggest threat to President Jonathan’s re-election chances in 2015. 

The Assassination Attempt

On Wednesday July 22, Buhari’s convoy was attacked in Kaduna State. According to news reports and eyewitness accounts and photographs from the scene, the attackers both…

View original 1,247 more words

Who wants Muhammadu Buhari dead?

Who is Muhammadu Buhari?

He ruled Nigeria as a military Head of State between January 1984 and August 1985.

He’s one of the most popular politicians in Nigeria at the moment, with a cult following across Northern Nigeria, especially in the twelve states generally referred to as the “core” North. 

He contested for the Presidency in 2003, 2007 and 2011, emerging runner-up on all three occasions. In the 2011 elections he amassed 12 million votes (mostly from the North) even in the face of what was generally adjudged a chaotic and poorly run campaign; further evidence of his political clout. He is therefore seen as the person most likely to pose the biggest threat to President Jonathan’s re-election chances in 2015. 

The Assassination Attempt

On Wednesday July 22, Buhari’s convoy was attacked in Kaduna State. According to news reports and eyewitness accounts and photographs from the scene, the attackers both detonated bombs and fired bullets at Buhari’s convoy. (There’s a video from the immediate aftermath here).

So, who might be after Buhari’s life?

There are four competing theories, as follows:

The Theories:

 

1. Boko Haram

In an April 2013 interview, journalist Ahmed Salkida, said, regarding reports that Boko Haram was seeking to negotiate a ceasefire with the Nigerian government:

I am sorry to say this, if the sect knows where to find General Buhari (someone I respect a lot) they will make an attempt on his life. To them, any retired and servicing soldier, police, politician or civil servant is an infidel that deserves to be killed. So how can the same sect with such an ideology listen to General Buhari, the Governor of Borno state or any other politician or the Sultan? The average member of this sect see all these people whether they are muslims or not as ‘living corpses’. For God sake have we not been listening to this people in the last couple of years?. Am I the only one listening to them? It seems the sect have been more consistent with their message than the Federal and state governments involve in this conflict.” 

Sahara Reporters quoted Buhari in a March 2014 interview as saying he is “not bothered” by the possibility of Boko Haram targeting him for elimination. He also reportedly credited the government with providing him “adequate protection” – an assertion that finds confirmation in Akin Osuntokun’s revelation in today’s This Day that Dangiwa Umar convinced President Jonathan to beef up security around General Buhari “a while ago.” If that is true, we may have that beefed-up security (armoured cars, etc) to thank for Buhari’s survival.

Buhari has in recent times been strident in his condemnation of Boko Haram. After the sect attacked several Borno villages last February, killing more than a hundred people, Buhari issued a statement that described the sect’s ideology as “a devilish ideology that has no place in a civilized society.” 

 

2. The President and/or his party (PDP)

We’ll have to turn to the letter former President Obasanjo wrote to President Jonathan last December to explain this theory:

[The] allegation of keeping over 1,000 people on political watch  list  rather than  criminal  or  security  watch  list  and  training  snipers  and  other  armed personnel  secretly  and  clandestinely  acquiring  weapons  to  match  for political purposes like Abacha, and training them where Abacha trained his own killers, if it is true, cannot augur well for the initiator, the government and  the  people  of  Nigeria. Here  again,  there  is  the  lesson  of  history  to learn  from  for  anybody  who  cares  to  learn  from  history. Mr. President would  always  remember  that  he  was  elected  to  maintain  security  for  all Nigerians and protect them. And  no  one  should  prepare  to  kill  or  maim Nigerians  for  personal  or  political  ambition  or  interest  of  anyone. The Yoruba adage says, “The man with whose head the coconut is broken may not live to savour the taste of the succulent fruit.” Those who advise you to go hard  on  those  who  oppose  you  are  your  worst  enemies. Democratic politics admits and is  permissive of supporters and opponents. When the consequences come, those who have wrongly advised you will not be there to help carry the can. Egypt must teach some lesson.”

The President, in his reply to that letter, denied this allegation that he is keeping a hit list: 

“Perhaps the most invidious accusation in your letter is the allegation that I have placed over one thousand Nigerians on a political watch list, and that I am training snipers and other militia to assassinate people. Baba, I don’t know where you got that from but you do me grave injustice in not only lending credence to such baseless rumours, but also publicizing it. You mentioned God seventeen times in your letter. Can you as a Christian hold the Bible and say that you truly believe this allegation? The allegation of training snipers to assassinate political opponents is particularly incomprehensible to me. Since I started my political career as a Deputy Governor, I have never been associated with any form of political violence. I have been a President for over three years now, with a lot of challenges and opposition mainly from the high and mighty. There have certainly been cases of political assassination since the advent of our Fourth Republic, but as you well know, none of them occurred under my leadership. Regarding the over one thousand people you say are on a political watch list, I urge you to kindly tell Nigerians who they are and what agencies of government are “watching” them.”

With the revelation that he provided increased security for Buhari, it’s hard to see why he would do that if he really wanted Buhari dead.

 

3. The APC or other opponents of President Jonathan

This is This Day columnist, Akin Osuntokun, on the attempted assassination:

“The way some APC partisans have latched on to the Buhari attack to rope in the president would have been comical were it not so tragic. If anybody should talk of conspiracy theories, the finger pointing may actually be more plausibly directed near home. The instant scapegoating of Jonathan – pointedly precluding Boko Haram as likely suspect – is in itself cause for suspicion. General Buhari had better watch his back against those who would rapidly concoct diversionary excuses for his potential assassination.

Even if Jonathan were to be incredibly naïve politically, he would at least know that Buhari is more useful to him alive than dead. Nothing solidifies support for Jonathan’s candidature better than the personality and potential candidacy of a divisive and polarising Buhari. So why eliminate such a rough and ready mobilisation tool?  My thinking is that Buhari is a problem not for Jonathan but for the APC.

Contrariwise and for the same reason of his utility for his political opponent, Buhari has become like a fishbone caught in the throat of the APC. He is the central dilemma figure of the party.”

Osuntokun clearly has PDP sympathies, and his column can generally be summed up as a series of eloquent attacks of APC and eloquent denunciations of the PDP.

Here is a tweet that echoes Osuntokun’s suggestion. Another here.

There is also the view that other opponents of President Jonathan – an allegedly power-hungry “Northern Elite”? (who may or may not necessarily be APC sympathisers – may have plotted this knowing that the death of Buhari would likely bring down the Jonathan government

 

 4. Buhari himself

This argument emerged on the Internet immediately after the news of the attack broke. Pushed by rabidly anti-Buhari people, the idea is that he arranged the assassination attempt to clear himself of allegations that he and his party are sympathetic to Boko Haram.

Of course ‘APC-is-a-party-of-extremist-Muslims’  allegations have gained ground in recent months, pushed by a wide range of sources: the PDP, a former APC member with a penchant for rabble-rousing, an ex-Kremlin adviser, and a UK Conservative think-tank.

While it may sound ridiculous – especially when one considers the extent of the attack – the Internet tells us there are people who actually believe it.

*

So who tried to kill General Buhari? I personally think it’s Boko Haram. Unfortunately we live in a country where the chances of the truth ever coming out are slimmer than the chance of Nigeria putting a man on the sun, or even even of winning the 2014 World Cup.

Major arrests and killings of Boko Haram leaders by Nigeria’s military

I’m compiling a list of Boko Haram leaders reportedly arrested or killed by Nigeria’s military. I will continue to update the list with new data and weblinks.

ARRESTED

  1. Alleged Senior Commander Mohammed Zakiri (“Chief Butcher”, arrested July 2014)
  1. Alleged Female recruiters Hafsat Usman Bako, Zainab Idris and Aisha Abubakar (Arrested July 2014)
  1. Alleged Commander, and key player in Chibok abduction, Babuji Ya’ari (Arrested July 2014)
  1. Alleged Mastermind of Nyanya Bombings, Aminu Sadiq Ogwuche (Declared wanted May 2014, Arrested in Sudan by Interpol May 2014, Extradited to Nigeria July 2014)
  1. Alleged Commander Shuaibu Mohammed Bama (Arrested October 2012)
  1. Alleged Commander Suleiman Mohammed (Arrested July 2012)
  1. Alleged Spokesman Abu Qaqa (believed to have been captured or killed in 2012)
  1. Alleged Commander, and mastermind of December 2011 bombing of Catholic Church in Madalla, Niger State, Kabiru Sokoto, arrested January 2012, convicted December 2013, and sentenced to life imprisonment.

KILLED

  1. Alleged Commanders Momodu Bama aka Abu Saad, and  Zakariyya Yau killed August 2013, alongside Bama’s father, Abatcha Flatari, alleged to be a Boko Haram spiritual figure
  1. Alleged Commander Mallam Husaini (Killed June 2014)